SUBSTITUTES FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTS
TOFU Known in China as "meat without
bones," tofu is a delicate, mild white cheese made from soy milk instead of
cowsmilk. There are two basic types of tofu: regular and silken. Regular
tofu is grainier and firmer than silken tofu and adds texture and chewiness to recipes.
Silken tofu is creamy and custard-like. Both kinds may come in a range of
firmnesses from soft to firm to extra firm. Both are available in reduced fat
versions. It is also comercially available already baked and flavored. Tofu
can take on many different flavors and can be used to make anything from lasagna to
TEXTURED VEGETABLE OR SOY PROTEIN textured
vegetable or soy protein is a food product made from defatted soy flour, cooked under
pressure and extruded into flakes, granules or chunks. Dry textured protein must be
rehydrated and cooked. Flakes and granules provide a texture similar to ground beef
and are good meat replacements in recipes such as chili, tacos, sloppy joes and spaghetti
sauce. Chunks can be used to replace meat strips in stews or stir-fries. They
are also available flavored to taste like ham, beef or chicken.
TEMPEH protein-rich food made from split and
hulled cooked soybeans and grains that are combined with a mold culture and incubated for
eighteen to twenty-four hours. The result is a "cake" of beans which is
covered with an edible white mold. It has a distinctive taste similar to mushrooms. Tempeh
has a chewy texture that makes it a good substitute for meat in dishes like tacos and
stew. When it is grated, it can easily replace ground meat in recipes like chili. It can
also be marinated and grilled like a burger.
SEITAN (pronounced say-Tan), is also known as
wheat meat. It is made from cooked gluten, one of the concentrated proteins in wheat
or spelt. Its origin dates back thousands of years to China where it was originally
developed as a meat substitute by Buddhist monks. To make seitan, a dough is made by
mixing together wheat flour and water. The dough is kneaded to develop the gluten.
Then it is rinsed under running water until all the starch and bran are washed off.
A faster method calls for the use of instant gluten flour which is derived from
pure wheat gluten. No rinsing and very little kneading is needed to make gluten from
this product. Raw gluten can be simmered in a seasoned soy sauce broth which gives a
"beefy" taste." After it has been cooked, the gluten is called
Seitan can be used to replace meat
chunks and slices in recipes such as stew, stroganoff or chili. It is available packed in
its seasoning broth, fresh, frozen or in jars at natural food stores.
BEANS beans are high in protein, calcium,
phosphorus and iron and are an excellent source of dietary fiber.
MILK AND DAIRY
COW MILK SUBSTITUTES:
SOY MILK can be found plain, sweetened,
or unsweetened, or containing flavorings such as vanilla, chocolate, or carob. It is
available in full-fat, lite, and/or enriched versions. Enriched versions can provide 30%
of the daily requirement for calcium per serving. It is also loaded with isoflavones. It
has a rich, creamy consistency that thickens well in cooking but may curdle at high
is commercially available in ready-to-drink liquids made from almonds. It has a
rich, sweet flavor.
RICE MILK is available plain, or containing
flavorings such as vanilla, chocolate, or carob. It is available in full-fat, lite and/or
enriched versions as well as soy-rice combinations. It is sweeter than soy milk and
makes an excellent beverage or cereal topper and in cooking is best suited to baked goods.
1 cup soy milk, nut milk or
rice milk plus two teaspoons of lemon juice or vinegar.
¼ cup silken tofu, blended with
¾ cup water plus 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus a pinch of salt plus a little
casein-free, soy and nut-based cheese substitutes. Note: casein is a dairy product.
Mashed, water-packed tofu plus a
little lemon juice for ricotta or cottage cheese.
7/8 cup vegetable to replace 1 cup
of butter in recipes.
Fruit purees (such as applesauce
and prune puree) can replace some of the fat in baking.
Eggs are used as binders and
thickeners in casseroles and as binders and leavening agents in baked goods. Most
commercially available egg replacers still contain egg products so you must read the
A popular, totally egg-free
replacer is put out by Ener-G foods and sold in natural food stores as well as in some
supermarkets. It is a powder made from a variety of vegetable starches. It
must be beaten with liquid prior to using and is best used in baked goods only.
Many baked goods do not require a
great deal of leavening and those that call for only one egg can be made without the egg.
Just add two or three additional teaspoons of liquid to the batter.
If your recipe calls for eggs
first determine what purpose it serves binding or thickening or lightening
To bind or thicken when preparing recipes such as veggie
burgers, bean and grain loaves or casseroles use:
Arrowroot starch, potato
starch, cornstarch, oat flour, whole wheat flour or unbleached wheat flour, quick cooking
rolled oats, cracker meal, matzo meal or breadcrumbs, cooked oatmeal, mashed potatoes,
mashed sweet potatoes, instant potato flakes, tahini and nut butters, tomato paste, soft
silken or water-pcked tofu blended with whole wheat pastry flour (1 tablespoon flour to ¼
To lighten baked goods, use:
1 teaspoon Ener-G Egg Replacer
beaten with 2 tablespoons water.
2 tablespoons flour plus 1 ½
teaspoons vegetable oil plus ½ teaspoon non-aluminum baking powder beaten with 2
1 tablespoon cornstarch plus 1
tablespoon instant soy milk powder beaten with 2 tablespoons water.
¼ cup soft silken or water-packed
tofu blended with the liquid called for in the recipe.
¼ cup mashed banana (or
applesauce) plus ½ teaspoon non-aluminum baking powder.
1 heaping tablespoon soy flour or
garbanzo flour beaten with 1 tablespoon of water.
1 tablespoon finely ground
flaxseed blended with 3 tablespoons water until frothy and viscous. Let the mixture
rest in the refrigerator an hour or more before using. It can be stored in the
refrigerator for up to 3 days.